Facts, stats and incidents

2020 reported infringements

January
CTA (includes airways) 19
TMA 9
CTR 9
ATZ 3
Restricted/Prohibited/Danger Areas 2
Temporary Restricted/Prohibited/Danger Areas 0
TMZ 0
RMZ 0
Total reported airspace infringements 42

 

2019 reported infringements by month

January February March   April May   June July August September October November December
CTA (includes airways) 29 23 24 40 63 39 59 65 34 28 6 12
TMA 13 21 26 21 31 39 37 41 28 18 11 8
CTR 9 21 14 34 35 30 36 39 29 17 13 12
ATZ 5 4 5 9 12 12 18 13 6 10 2 4
Restricted/Prohibited/Danger Areas 2 0 7 3 6 8 8 3 1 11 2 3
Temporary Restricted/Prohibited/Danger Areas 1 0 0 1 0 3 3 2 0 2 0 1
TMZ 3 4 5 5 7 5 5 6 4 0 1 1
RMZ 1 3 2 4 5 10 10 10 2 0 0 1
Total reported airspace infringements 63 76 83 119 159 146 179 179 104 86 35 42

 

Reported infringements summary: 2017, 2018, 2019

Year 2017 2018 2019
Total reported infringemtents 1162 1358 1271
CTA (includes Airways) 812 * 706 ** 411
CTR * included in 2017 CTA figure 285 289
TMA * included in 2017 CTA figure ** included in 2018 CTA figure 294
ATZ 97 130 100
Restricted/Prohibited/Danger Areas 81 *** 87 *** 54
Temporary Restricted/Prohibited/ Danger Areas *** included in 2017 Restricted/Prohibited/Danger Areas figure *** included in 2017 Restricted/Prohibited/Danger Areas figure 13
TMZ 57 76 46
RMZ 115 74 48

 

Airspace infringements: 2017 and 2018 statistics compared


ICG meeting data

Each month the CAA will publish statistical data of infringement Mandatory Occurrence Reports (MORs) processed under CAP1404 by the CAA’s Infringement Coordination Group (ICG).  The IGC is a cross-organisational Regulatory Group comprising members of the CAA and one member of the Military Aviation Authority (MAA); details of composition can be found in CAP1404.

The MORs processed do not correspond numerically to those reported in the same month due to the time taken to collate MOR, Pilot and supporting supplementary reports.  MORs are read by the ICG when one or more of the following exist:

  • Loss of separation
  • Safety Intervention Measures implemented such as (but not exclusive to) avoiding action, radar vectors, cessation of departures, holding etc
  • Repeat Infringement by pilot-in-command

January 2020 ICG decisions

Course of action  Number   Summary
Closed with No Further Action   11
  • Student (4)
  • Transponder unserviceability confirmed by licenced engineer, no AI (4)
  • Insufficient evidence of airspace being infringed (2)
  • Other factors (1)
Advisory letter   35
Online tutorial and test   3
Practical training   3
  • Planning/Threat and Error Management requiring 1-1 training
Airspace Infringement Awareness Course (AIAC)   8
  • Loss of Separation (1)
  • Safety Intervention Measures require to maintain safety (6)
  • Safety impact/other (1)
Provisional suspensions   0
Ongoing investigations   0
Licence revocation   0

 

ICG decisions made in December 2019

ICG decisions made in December 2019
Course of action  Number   Summary
Closed with No Further Action   5
  • Student (5)
Warning letter   22
  • includes (14) warning letters to close the occurrence – see note below (*)
On-line test   1
Flight training   1
  • Lack of awareness of planning, use of equipment and lack of AI prevention tools; multiple safety intervention measures applied (1)
Airspace Infringement Awareness Course (AIAC)   5
  • Safety Intervention measures applied (3)
  • Poor planning and airmanship (1)
  • Repeat infringing pilot NOT previously attended AIAC (CAP1404 escalatory measure due to 3 AI in 3 months) (1)
Provisional suspensions   2
  • Provisional suspension of Flight Instructor’s certificate for repeat infringing pilot previously attended AIAC (CAP1404 escalatory measure) (1)
  • Multiple airspace infringements during multiple flights (1)
Ongoing investigations   2
Licence revocation   0
(*) Warning letters

With effect from 1 June 2019, all other pilots subject of airspace infringement MORs are contacted by the CAA to notify them of their airspace infringement and a pilot report requested. Once the investigation is complete, and if an airspace infringement is confirmed, the pilot will be sent a warning letter to close the occurrence.

ICG decisions made in November 2019

ICG decisions made in November 2019
Course of action  Number   Summary
Closed with No Further Action   3
  • Transponder unserviceability confirmed by licenced engineer, no infringement occurred (1)
  • Student (2)
Warning letter   51
  • includes (39) warning letters to close the occurrence – see note below (*)
On-line test   1
Flight training   0
Airspace Infringement Awareness Course (AIAC)   12
  • Loss of Separation (1)
  • Safety Intervention measures applied (6)
  • Multiple airspace infringements in one flight (1)
  • Repeat infringing pilot NOT previously attended AIAC (CAP1404 escalatory measure) (3)
  • RA(T) infringement (1)
Provisional suspensions   2
  • Repeat infringing pilot previously attended AIAC (CAP1404 escalatory measure) (2)
Ongoing investigations   1
Licence revocation   0
(*) Warning letters

With effect from 1 June 2019, all other pilots subject of airspace infringement MORs are contacted by the CAA to notify them of their airspace infringement and a pilot report requested. Once the investigation is complete, and if an airspace infringement is confirmed, the pilot will be sent a warning letter to close the occurrence.

ICG decisions made in October 2019

ICG decisions made in October 2019
Course of action  Number   Summary
Closed with No Further Action   5
  • Transponder unserviceability confirmed by licenced engineer, no infringement occurred (1)
  • Student (4)
Warning letter   56
  • includes (43) warning letters to close the occurrence – see note below (*)
On-line test   8
Flight training   2
  • Poor standard of navigation requires practical training (2)
Airspace Infringement Awareness Course (AIAC)   22
  • Loss of Separation (6)
  • Safety Intervention measures applied (9)
  • Multiple airspace infringements in one flight (1)
  • Failure of online-test (CAP1404 escalatory measure) (1)
  • Repeat infringing pilot NOT previously attended AIAC (CAP1404 escalatory measure) (4)
  • PIC request to attend in lieu of online test to improve knowledge (1)
Provisional suspensions   4
  • Major Infringement with multiple factors (1)
  • Repeat infringing pilot previously attended AIAC (CAP1404 escalatory measure) (2)
  • Repeat (4) infringing pilot (1)
Ongoing investigations   8
Licence revocation   0
(*) Warning letters

With effect from 1 June 2019, all other pilots subject of airspace infringement MORs are contacted by the CAA to notify them of their airspace infringement and a pilot report requested. Once the investigation is complete, and if an airspace infringement is confirmed, the pilot will be sent a warning letter to close the occurrence.

ICG decisions made in September 2019

ICG decisions made in September 2019
Course of action  Number   Summary
Closed with No Further Action   6
  • Transponder unserviceability confirmed by licenced engineer, no infringement occurred (2)
  • Student (4)
Warning letter   56
  • includes (50) warning letters to close the occurrence – see note below (*)
On-line test   6
Flight training   1
  • Poor standard of navigation requires practical training
Airspace Infringement Awareness Course (AIAC)   11
  • Loss of Separation (1)
  • Safety Intervention measures applied (8)
  • Multiple airspace infringements resulted in safety intervention measure (1)
  • Failure of online-test (CAP1404 escalatory measure) (1)
Provisional suspensions   0
Ongoing investigations   3
Licence revocation   0
(*) Warning letters

With effect from 1 June 2019, all other pilots subject of airspace infringement MORs are contacted by the CAA to notify them of their airspace infringement and a pilot report requested. Once the investigation is complete, and if an airspace infringement is confirmed, the pilot will be sent a warning letter to close the occurrence.

ICG decisions made in August 2019

ICG decisions made in August 2019
Course of action  Number   Summary
Closed with No Further Action   9
  • Transponder unserviceability confirmed by licenced engineer, no infringement occurred (2)
  • Transponder unserviceability confirmed by licenced engineer, TMZ infringement occurred (1)
  • Insufficient evidence available (1)
  • Student (5)
Warning letter   74
  • includes (48) warning letters to close the occurrence – see note below (*).
On-line test   14
Flight training   2
  • Poor standard of navigation requires practical training (2)
Airspace Infringement Awareness Course (AIAC)   22
  • Loss of Separation (3)
  • Safety Intervention measures applied (13)
  • Safety impact/other where training deemed required (3)
  • Repeat AI having not already attended AIAC (1)
  • Multiple airspace infringements resulted in safety intervention measure (2)
Provisional suspensions   4
  • Major airspace infringements including multiple safety intervention measures applied (1)
  • Pilot repeat infringer – Previously attended AIAC (2)
  • Pilot repeat infringer – Previously attended AIAC; latest infringements resulted in safety intervention measure (1)
Ongoing investigations   8
Licence revocation   0
(*) Warning letters

With effect from 1 June 2019, all other pilots subject of airspace infringement MORs are contacted by the CAA to notify them of their airspace infringement and a pilot report requested. Once the investigation is complete, and if an airspace infringement is confirmed, the pilot will be sent a warning letter to close the occurrence.

ICG decisions made in July 2019

ICG decisions made in July 2019
Course of action  Number   Summary
Closed with No Further Action   1
  • Transponder unserviceability confirmed by licenced engineer, no infringement occurred
Warning letter   60
  • includes (45) warning letters to close the occurrence – see note below (*).
On-line test   1
Flight training   1
Airspace Infringement Awareness Course (AIAC)   15
  • Loss of separation (4)
  • Safety Intervention measures applied (4)
  • Safety impact/other where training deemed required (2)
  • Double airspace infringement including loss of separation (1)
  • Double airspace infringement due to poor planning (2)
  • Instructor positioned aircraft into infringement situation to test student’s awareness/knowledge; student AND instructor failed to resolve (1)
  • Pilot previously infringed (1)
Provisional suspensions   5
  • Major infringement with significant safety risk (1)
  • Additional infringements having previously attended AIAC (3)
  • Multiple infringements in 2 flights (1)
Ongoing investigations   13
Licence revocation   0
(*) Warning letters

With effect from 1 June 2019, all other pilots subject of airspace infringement MORs are contacted by the CAA to notify them of their airspace infringement and a pilot report requested.  Once the investigation is complete, and if an airspace infringement is confirmed, the pilot will be sent a warning letter to close the occurrence.

ICG decisions made in June 2019

ICG decisions made in June 2019
Course of action  Number   Summary
Closed with No Further Action   5
  • Transponder unserviceability confirmed by licenced engineer, no infringement occurred (3)
  • Investigation confirmed no infringement occurred (1)
  • Student (1)
Warning letter   19
  • includes (10) warning letters to close the occurrence – see note below (*).
On-line test   1
Flight training   1
  • Safety intervention measures applied
Airspace Infringement Awareness Course (AIAC)   18
  • Loss of separation (4)
  • Safety intervention measures applied (7)
  • Safety impact/other where training deemed required (5)
  • Repeat airspace infringement having not already attended AIAC (2)
Provisional suspensions   6
  • Loss of separation (1)
  • Infringed active danger area resulting in suspension of live firing. Pilot flying without a valid licence (1)
  • Infringement of Controlled Airspace whilst flying without a valid licence (1)
  • Pilot repeat infringer – Previously attended AIAC (1)
  • Pilot repeat infringer – Previously attended AIAC. Infringements resulted in safety intervention measures and a loss of separation (1)
  • Multiple (4) airspace infringements in 2 flights over 2 days including safety intervention measures applied (1).
Ongoing investigations   4
Licence revocation   0

 

(*) Warning letters

With effect from 1 June 2019, all other pilots subject of airspace infringement MORs are contacted by the CAA to notify them of their airspace infringement and a pilot report requested.  Once the investigation is complete, and if an airspace infringement is confirmed, the pilot will be sent a warning letter to close the occurrence.

ICG decisions made in May 2019

ICG decisions made in May 2019
Course of action  Number   Summary
Closed with No Further Action   7
  • Pilot did not infringe; MOR based on visual sighting report (1)
  • Student pilots (5)
  • Transponder unserviceability confirmed by licenced engineer  (1)
Warning letter   7
On-line test   0
Airspace Infringement Awareness Course (AIAC)   23
  • Loss of separation (7)
  • Safety intervention measures (12)
  • Safety impact/other (2)
  • Repeat infringing pilot having not already attended AIAC (2)
Provisional suspensions   3
  • Repeat infringing pilot causing stop on departures; pilot previous attended AIAC
  • Repeat Infringing pilot; previously attended AIAC
  • Repeat (3) infringing pilot plus other safety related data
Ongoing investigations   2
Licence revocation   0

 

ICG decisions made in April 2019

ICG decisions made in April 2019
Course of action  Number   Summary
Closed with No Further Action  0
Warning letter  4
On-line test  1
Airspace Infringement Awareness Course (AIAC)  15
  • Safety intervention measures (7)
  • Safety impact/other (5)
  • Multiple airspace infringements in one flight (2)
  • Repeat airspace infringement having not already attended AIAC (1)
Provisional suspensions  1
  • Repeat AI having been previously Provisionally Suspended
Ongoing investigations  2
Licence revocation  0

 

ICG decisions made in March 2019

ICG decisions made in March 2019
Course of action  Number   Summary
Closed with No Further Action  3
  • Transponder unserviceability confirmed by licenced engineer, no airspace infringement (3)
Warning letter  4
On-line test  3
Airspace Infringement Awareness Course (AIAC)  13
  • Loss of separation (3)
  • Safety intervention measures (5)
  • Safety impact/other (5)
Provisional suspensions  2
  • Second airspace infringement having attended AIAC (1)
  • Multiple infringements during 2 flights (1)
Ongoing investigations  5
Licence revocation  0

 

ICG decisions made in February 2019

ICG decisions made in February 2019

Course of action  Number   Summary
Closed with No Further Action  2
  • Transponder unserviceability confirmed by licenced engineer, no airspace infringement (1)
  • Investigation proved no infringement (1)
Warning letter  12
On-line test  4
Airspace Infringement Awareness Course (AIAC)  10
  • Loss of separation (2)
  • Safety intervention measures (2)
  • Safety impact/other (1)
  • Repeat airspace infringement having not already attended AIAC (2)
  • Multiple airspace infringements in one flight (1)
  • Pilot previously assigned online test but unable to operate a computer (1)
  • Pilot previously failed online test (1)
Provisional suspensions  3
  • Airspace infringement plus multiple safety related MOR
  • Double airspace infringement on one flight requiring multiple  safety intervention measures
  • Third airspace infringement having attended AIAC
Ongoing investigations  3
Licence revocation  0

 

ICG decisions made in January 2019

ICG decisions made in January 2019
Course of action  Number   Summary
Closed with No Further Action   1
  • Transponder unserviceability confirmed by licenced engineer, no airspace infringement (1)
Warning letter  4
On-line test  2
Airspace Infringement Awareness Course (AIAC)  17
  • Loss of separation (2)
  • Safety intervention measures (4)
  • Safety impact/other (10)
  • Repeat airspace infringement having not already attended AIAC (1)
Provisional suspensions   2
  • Pilot infringed controlled airspace without a valid licence (1)
  • Repeat AI having already attended AIAC (1)
Ongoing investigations   6
Licence revocation   0

 

Causal factor analysis of airspace infringements

Analysis of airspace infringement reports from 2017 has shown that the correct use of a moving map could have helped avoid 85% of airspace infringements.

Occurrence reports from private pilots were assessed against four key measures that could have helped prevent the infringement or reduced its impact on other air traffic or controllers:

  • Use of moving maps with an airspace warning
  • Use of a frequency monitoring code (FMC), also known as a listening squawk
  • Recognition of/dealing with overload and distraction
  • Better familiarity with aircraft and equipment

The report was carried out by a sub-group of the CAA’s Airspace Infringement Working Group, made up of three experienced General Aviation pilots.

Read the full report: Causal Factor Analysis of Airspace Infringements 2017

Airspace infringement series: A controller’s story

A series of controller’s stories from NATS

Mark Davenport, an air traffic controller at Swanwick centre, talks about his experience with airspace infringements. Airspace Infringement Series: A controller’s story… (20 May 2019)

Brian Ringrose is an air traffic controller at Swanwick centre. He talks about his experience looking after airspace around Gatwick. Airspace infringement series: A controller’s story (12 April 2019)

Amanda Rhodes is an air traffic controller at Swanwick Centre.  She talks about her experience looking after airspace around Luton Airport. Airspace Infringement Series: A controller’s story (22 March 2019)

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