The full set of hot-spot narratives can be found on this page: Local area information

Preventing infringements in UK airspace

Between October 2019 and October 2020, the eight Local Airspace Infringement Teams and Air Navigation Service Providers (ANSP) have compiled 25 narratives to help pilots avoid infringing airspace at known hot-spots around the UK.

Each narrative has been written based on the Threats and potential Errors that we can all be exposed to in the course of our flying, whether it be recreationally, during training or during the course of operations/business. In addition to identifying the specific hot-spots, the narratives have offered educational information to increase our knowledge-base as aviators and guidance from safety partners involved in helping pilots prevent airspace infringements.

This final output in this initiative sets out a simple ‘index’ of the narratives and a summary of the key points that may help pilots avoid infringing notified airspace.


Airport/Aerodrome/Airspace Area/Subject Narrative Number
Aerodrome Traffic Zones Rule 11
Manchester Barton
Birmingham CTA-2 3
Brize Norton CTR 11
Doncaster/Sheffield CTR & Northern CTA
CTR & Southern CTA
East Midlands CTA-2 8
Farnborough All CTR and CTA
Blackbushe operations
VFR, Fairoaks & Transits
Flight Information Services London & Scottish Flight Information 23
Gatwick CTA and Redhill aerodrome 15
Hawarden RMZ 6
Liverpool All CTR & CTA 13
London Control Area LTMA 22
London Control Zone Southwest corner 1
Luton CTR & western CTA 24
Manchester Low-Level Route
East of CTR
NOTAM Deactivation of Controlled Airspace 17
Prohibited and Restricted Airspace EG P, EG R & RA(T) 20
Solent South of CTR (CTA-2)
North of CTR (CTA-3 & CTA-5)
Southend CTA & CTR 18
Stansted CTA, CTR &TMZ 16

The full set of hot-spot narratives can be found on this page: Local area information

Advice and guidance

The LAITs and Airspace and Safety Initiative partners strongly encouraged pilots to apply the following guidance to avoid airspace infringements:

  • Use a Moving Map. In the vast majority of airspace infringements, pilots were found not to be using a moving map or not using one correctly. This is particularly evident during instructional flights where instructor workload is high and distractions highly likely. Using Moving Maps not only gives pilots a profile along the planned route showing notified airspace along, above and below the route but it offers other airspace warnings of unusual aerial activity; it is essential that functions of the equipment are correctly understood and the settings are correctly applied/configures to enable updates and warnings to be available both pre- and in-light. In addition, the ‘platforms’ for Moving Maps are also idea for use with Electronic Conspicuity devices to help avoid mid-air collisions.
  • When flying in proximity to Controlled Airspace (CAS), and able to, Take 2 and operate on the most appropriate altimetry setting when operating under CTA.  Remember that the Regional Pressure Setting offered by some ANSP is the lowest forecast pressure setting for an altimeter setting region. Care must also be taken to note where the base of CAS changes between an altitude and a Flight Level.
  • Obtain a Lower Airspace Radar Service (LARS). Pilots can obtain a LARS from a number of Air Traffic Service Units around the UK; details can be found at LARS Frequencies and in the relevant sections of the UK AIP in the Aerodrome Section.
  • Apply Threat and Error Management when planning and flying.  Airmanship is the art of applying your skill and knowledge to flying. A practical and easy way of doing this is by using Threat and Error Management (TEM) to manage ALL hazards likely to be encountered on the ground and in the air. In this card we look at how TEM can be used to prevent airspace infringements.
    TEM is the practice of thinking ahead to predict/identify and avoid errors and threats and manage any that occur. Understanding TEM will enable a pilot to think and plan, in advance, for the eventualities that can lead to an airspace infringement. By spending time on the ground, pre-flight, to consider these factors you will be better prepared for many of the things that can wrong in the air. One of the biggest causes of infringements is distraction; manage that Threat when operating close to CAS.
  • Avoid flying on the RPS in the vicinity of CTAs or below TMA. When flying on the RPS, as it is the lowest forecast pressure setting for a region, you will be higher in relation to, for example, the London QNH.  Always ask for the relevant QNH rather than accepting/flying on the RPS. key advice on Altimetry can be found here on the Airspace and Safety Initiative website.
  • If appropriate – request a clearance to enter controlled airspace. If for any reason a climb is required above the base of the CTA, then a clearance must be obtained. Depending on a variety of factors, not least the runway in use and traffic situation at the time, this may well be available. By obtaining a clearance to enter CAS when appropriate, ATC is able to control more effectively and ensure safety is maintained. 
  • Plan your flight and include in that planning how you will arrive at and depart from an aerodrome. Many infringements of CAS occur in the vicinity of departure or destination aerodromes. Considering the Threats associated with local airspace and how you will arrive, what altimeter setting, direction of patterns etc will reduce the probability of making an error at the final stage of a flight. On departure, by knowing the local airspace, you can adjust climb rates, direction of turns, initial planned altitude and manage distractions during a stage of flight where workload is high. Remember POWER, ATTITUDE, TRIM when entering the climb but ATTITUDE- POWER-TRIM when levelling off.


Keep reading

Hot-spot updates

Summary and Index

Infringement avoidance

Learn more

Pre-flight planning

Learn more

Pilot knowledge updates

Removal of Warwick VRP

Recovery planning

Avoiding infringements

Denied airspace access?

Online reporting form